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Paraphrasing is:

Restating in your own words a passage written by someone other than yourself.
Paraphrased versions of a passage include all the details of the original text.

Summarizing is:

Restating in your own words only the main idea(s) of a passage written by someone other than yourself. The details are left out of the summary.

Original text:
When Europeans reached present-day Latin America they found three important civilizations: Mayan, Aztec, and Incan. That we should still call the native peoples of this hemisphere “Indians” perpetuates the error of sixteenth-century Spaniards who wanted to believe they had reached the spice-rich Indies.
(Thomas E. Skidmore, Peter H. Smith. Modern Latin America Fourth Edition, Oxford University Press, 1997.)

Paraphrase:
European explorers who mistakenly thought they had reached India, encountered the Mayas, the Aztecs, and the Incas, three major native cultures of modern-day Latin America. They erroneously called these people “Indians,” a misnomer that persists even today.

Summary:
Referring to the native groups of modern-day Latin America as “Indians” is a misnomer that has persisted since sixteenth-century European explorers erroneously gave them that name.

What purposes do paraphrasing and summarizing serve?:

• Add credibility to your argument
• Can help describe opposing points of view
• Provide a way to include information without quoting too much
• Provide important information from an undistinguished passage
• Provide brief background information

Does the author paraphrased or summarized have to be attributed?:

YES, otherwise is it plagiarism!

This can be accomplished by including the source in the paraphrase or summary:
According to Skidmore and Smith, ….

Attribution can also be given after the paraphrase or summary:

European explorers…. (Skidmore, Smith 13)

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